How One Tezos-Based App is Democratizing Elections
Elections, historically have often been questioned for their accuracy and transparency and now one blockchain-based platform has created arguably one of the most secure and reliable platforms for elections to be conducted digitally. Electis, a voting platform that has been used by over 20,000 voters since its launch, has aligned itself with one of the most “green” and environmentally friendly blockchain providers Tezos. It is perhaps for this reason that Electis has been most popular among government agencies and nonprofit organizations that are focused on the realms of sustainability, climate change and carbon footprints.
Organizations using Electis for democratic voting
Electis has grown in popularity since its inception and is now regularly used to conduct fair and open-source elections among a wide network of parties. The most recent of which include the official children and youth constituency of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This nonprofit, part of the UN, is comprised of a global network of both children and youth activists as well as youth NGOs, who are working on developing policies on climate change. Their votes see the future trajectory of this organization take shape as they contribute their voices to the policies of the UNFCCC. Another UN organization that has chosen the Electis platform for democratic voting is the SDG7 Youth Constituency, a means for youth to have their voices heard in the energy sector, more specifically on renewable energy sources. According to a member of the global support team at SDG7 Youth constituency “Electis is our trusted partner for this year’s election campaign – and hopefully for all future elections”. The Women and Gender Constituency is one of nine official observers for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which holds member states accountable for keeping warming beneath 1.5 degrees Celcius, while practicing respect for human rights and Women’s and Gender Issues, has also used Electis. Electis bases its app on secure and transparent e-voting, which places confidentiality and verifiability at the heart of its product. It does this through the use of blockchain technology, which due to its architecture is tamperproof from the outside. This makes both the process and outcome of voting fair, and due to its digital nature allows voters to participate in votes no matter where they are in the world. Electis chose Tezos blockchain to build its application due to its environmentally friendly nature, as well as its speed and security of transactions.
Agrotoken, the first global tokenization infrastructure for agrocommodities, is partnering with Pomelo and Algorand as strategic allies for the implementation and development of a card designed for the agricultural sector.
The Algorand blockchain will make all operations transparent, fast, secure, with high scalability and low energy consumption, as it has been built focusing on sustainability in order to minimize the environmental impact, an approach diametrically opposed to other networks currently in operation.
Integrating Pomelo and Algorand into existing partnership with Visa shows the versatility of Agrotoken’s cryptoassets.
What is Agrotoken?
Agrotokens are tradable digital assets backed by grain. Their value is linked to the price of the grain. 1 Agrotoken represents 1 ton of grain.
What is utility of Agrotoken?
You can tokenize your grains online, receiving Agrotokens in your wallet, which can be accessed by your cell phone or computer.
Exchange them for seeds, vehicles, machinery, fuel, services, etc.
Use them as collateral for loans.
Get a pre-funded card with your Agrotokens
Accept them in exchange for your products and services to receive the money immediately in your wallet, without delays.
Nomadic labs is happy to see Beacon and Taquito having already added support for Kathmandunet. It is critical to have as many bakers and builders as possible participating in this testnet, by running nodes, producing blocks and deploying apps and infrastructure. Nomadic Labs will publish a release candidate for a new Octez suite version, v14.0~rc1, within a few days. It will include the daemon binaries that enable participation in the Kathmandunet test network. Should the Kathmandu protocol proposal be accepted by the community, v14 of Octez (or later) will be required to participate in consensus due to necessary changes introduced to the protocol environment.
The smart contract optimistic rollups core business logic and Wasm PVM are in a mature enough state for the community to start developing and testing applications and infrastructure on testnets. As mentioned in our Kathmandu preview post, smart contract rollups will not be enabled on Tezos mainnet by the Kathmandu protocol proposal. This is to give the community extra time to develop and test infrastructure and Layer 2 applications. Given that Kathmandunet is meant to mirror the current protocol proposal, it will not have support for smart contract rollups enabled. Instead, we encourage the community to start building and testing on the bleeding edge Mondaynet and Dailynet testnets.
Ghostnet is live! It’s a permanent testnet that follows Mainnet upgrades, meaning dApp developers will no longer have to redeploy to a new testnet after each upgrade. It was activated with a User Activated Upgrade (Ithacanet -> Jakarta), and another UAU will be necessary to migrate to Kathamandu. After that, further evolution of Ghostnet will happen via a new upgrade mechanism managed by Oxhead Alpha. Further details are available in the TZIP advocating for this feature. The implementation is a contribution of G.-B. Fefe, a community member not affiliated with the core developing teams behind this protocol proposal. For this work, an invoice of 3000 XTZ is included in the proposal. Nomadic labs is interested in the communty’s input on the optimal date for testing migration of Ghostnet to the next Mainnet protocol. The migration from Ithaca to Jakarta was performed a few hours before Mainnet activation. For Kathmandu, Nomadic labs is considering to do Ghostnet migration 72 hours prior to Mainnet activation, should the proposal be adopted. However, we would like to empirically figure out the best time (during the Adoption period) to perform the migration. The community’s participation in the test network and feedback will be most welcome in this process.
The changes in Jakarta 2 with regard to the previous Jakarta proposal concern only fixing the reported bugs. In this section we shed more light into these issues, and detail how they were corrected for the new protocol proposal.
The first bug concerns rejection operations, that is the Layer 1 operation which allows a honest node to refute an erroneous or malicious commitment in a TORU. A flaw in its implementation ultimately made it possible for an attacker to publish commitments whose refutation proofs would not fit within the maximal allowed size for Tezos’ manager1 operations batches — 32 KiB.
This limit underpins a design decision in the current implementation of TORUs: there is an upper-bound on the number of Layer 2 transaction batches from the same rollup which can be (ahem!) rolled up within a given Tezos Layer 1 block. For each of these batches, operators of the client rollup are required to include the batch’s hash in their respective commitment operation on Layer 1. Inserting too many batches from the same rollup in the same block would make it impossible to insert a valid commitment for it in a subsequent block, which would result in the incriminated rollup being stuck forever.
Rejection operations denounce a specific rollup commitment, which contains one hash per batch of Layer 2 transactions. Honest rollup accusers can trivially find the first hash that they disagree with, and craft a rejection operation to refute said batch. The rejection operations requires two key pieces of data: (1) the target batch itself, and (2) a collection of Merkle proofs which allow to replay said message. This raises an immediate concern. What if the provided Merkle proofs are just too large to fit within the size boundaries a Tezos Layer 1 manager operation? If the batch is large enough (that is, it contains enough transactions), this can definitely happen.
To tackle this risk, TORUs relies on two design choices. First, TORUs encode Merkle proofs using a format that allows to send truncated proofs. Second, a batch for which one can exhibit a valid, “large enough” truncated proof has to be considered a no-op.
In the first Jakarta proposal, the size boundary for Layer 2 operations batches was 5 KB, and a truncated proof larger than 30 KB was required, in order to prove that a batch should be considered a no-op. So, in order for an honest rollup node to prove that a batch of size 5KB was to be ignored, it needed to produce a refutation whose size was at least 35 KB (~36 KiB)… which does not fit within the 32 KiB limit on Layer 1.
The fix is straightforward: accept a truncated proof of 30KiB – sizeof(batch). In this way, rejection operations are guaranteed to fit within a single Tezos manager operation. The curious reader can have a look at the diff of the MR implementing this bugfix.
The second bug concerns Tezos Tickets. The latter are an abstract representation of tokenized assets, and in TORUs, they are used to represent the assets deposited and transacted within the rollup.
Tickets can be seen as a tuple consisting of: (1) its (typed) payload, (2) the address of the smart contract which has minted it — a.k.a its ticketer — , and (3) a quantity. A ticket can be split into two (and eventually more parts), assuming that the total sum of the quantities associated to each of the two resulting half-tickets is equal to the amount of the original one. Dually, two tickets with the same payload and issued by the same ticketer, can also be joined, adding up the quantities.
TezTok is an NFT data indexing tool that comes with its own easily accessible GraphQL API.
On TezTok the ‘…indexer aggregates and stores an event history for all tokens. Every time a new event occurs on a token, the indexer processes the event history and re-creates a token model along with listings, offers, tags, and holdings.’
In essence, the tool can index and normalize NFT-related data on the Tezos blockchain.
This means that the data concerning various Tezos marketplaces and NFTs on the Tezos blockchain can be easily fed through to the API, via the indexer, with a normalized output.
This allows developers to create external apps utilizing this more normalized output via the TezTok API, enabling savings on complexity and time.
The tool can be used for a variety of NFT data use-cases and developers in the ecosystem are free to use the service to create their own applications through the API.
Developers interested in using the tool can browse the documentation here, which features a GraphiQL Playground and some use-case examples to work with.
It is expected a #1of1 tool / TezTok tool will be available for the big Tezos one-of-one event starting in the first week of July.
The TezTok Live Feed Beta Tool
In order to show the capabilities of TezTok, the team has been creating tools that feature various use-cases for the Tezos ecosystem.
On June 26th, TezTok announced that they had launched their new Beta live tool for Tezos art NFTs, enabling users to seamlessly track new NFT drops in general, and also track NFT drops from their favorite artists via the ‘Watchlist’ feature.
Some might say the TezTok live feed works in a similar way to how Tweetdeck does with Twitter, however, the tool is specific to Tezos NFT art.
On Twitter, Tweetdeck allows users to create unique tweet feeds from the accounts that matter most to them, segmenting topics by filters and letting the user view multiple timelines of specific accounts in one easy interface.
This helps to keep topics organized and can help to keep monitoring Twitter efficiently.
On TezTok Live feed, users can create an NFT feed, using the filters that matter most to them, whilst also choosing specific artists/collectors to monitor, saving time, but also enabling opportunities.
It can help make the search for NFTs more efficient, especially when users have to scour many Tezos NFT platforms to find the right piece.
It can also help with the visibility of all artists, as they will appear in the main TezTok default feed.
Collectors have the opportunity to spot something on the live feed that suits exactly what they are looking for visually, without having to be on every platform at the same time.
Serokell is a software research and development company, focused on high complexity tasks in the area of computer science.
Our team is composed of developers, designers, engineers, computer scientists, and mathematicians, all to help you realize your vision.
We use functional programming to write robust code that works anywhere, anytime.
Initially, we worked with StakerDAO to implement the STKR governance token a monitoring app on Tezos. After that, we moved to BLND token and implemented a set of Ethereum contracts for holding BLND and performing buyback with them.
We also implemented a web app to run the buyback process.
After that, we designed and implemented the Bridge application and associated set of contracts that allow exchanging BLND and wXTZ tokens between Ethereum and Tezos.
We are working on Bridge backend support for ALgorand now.
Rand Labs is a blockchain development lab specialized in Algorand technology.
At Rand Labs we have developed specialized expertise in blockchain technology. Through 8 years of experience, we have worked closely with all major blockchain protocols and have garnered valuable experience in the industry that helps us deliver the maximum quality in our products and those of our partners.
We spend years training and advancing our team members' skills by facing ever more complex technical challenges in the blockchain space. Having helped and participated in the development of many of the most popular blockchain products in the world since 2013, we are in the capacity to deliver quality solutions regardless of the difficulty of the problem.
Despite having built numerous blockchain products and consensus upgrades from scratch, we believe a business-oriented acumen is as important in delivering maximum product-market fit. With our long history in the industry, we have developed a valuable network of relationships that is available to our partners. Additionally, The Rand Labs management team has been very active as investors and advisors in the space. We have invested in and advised very successful projects. As important, we have seen many projects fail which allowed us to learn valuable insights from those failures.
Product DevelopmentAlgorand Smart Contract development and auditsBackend developmentInfrastructureDev ops UX UI
Rand Labs has always been a fully remote company, way before the impacts created by COVID. We believe this has allowed our company to operate completely crypto native, including payroll, corporate structure, and revenue. We feel that by operating this way, every individual in our team is positioned to deliver the best products and solutions of this industry.
Staker Services provides technical, business and operation services for the cross-chain era. The Operations team specialised in the DeFi ecosystem, with experience in launching products across chains - from Ethereum to Tezos, Algorand, Polkadot and more.
"ChainSafe Systems is a blockchain research & development firm with a focus on building infrastructure for Web3. We are actively contributing to the Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Cosmos, Polkadot, and Filecoin ecosystems and are open to contributing to other Web3 ecosystems where we see merit. Feel free to visit our website or email [email protected] with any inquiries.”